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Reef Ecology


Getting the Most Out of Your Underwater Experience: An introduction to the fish, creatures, and coral of the Virgin Islands. Part I: Fish. Author: Brian Naess (Posted: 2/18/2010)

Getting the Most Out of Your Underwater Experience: An introduction to the fish, creatures, and coral of the Virgin Islands. Part II: Creatures and Coral. Author: Brian Naess (Posted: 2/25/2009)


Graham, Nicholas A. J., Wilson, Shaun K., Jennings, Simon, Polunin, Nicholas V. C., Bijoux, Jude P., and Robinson, Jan. Dynamic fragility of oceanic coral reef ecosystems. PNAS published May 18, 2006, 10.1073/pnas.0600693103.

Idjadi, Joshua A., Lee, Sarah C., Bruno, John F., Precht, William F., Allen-Requa, Laurie, Edmunds, Peter J. Rapid phase-shift reversal on a Jamaican coral reef, Coral Reefs, Volume 25, Issue 2, May 2006, Pages 209 – 211, DOI 10.1007/s00338-006-0088-7.

Robertson, D. Ross. Population maintenance among tropical reef fishes: Inferences from small-island endemics. PNAS 98: 5667-5670.

Student Presentations

Hannah Aichelman and Madelyn Roycroft: The Story of Gerald the Lobster: an illustrated children’s story about the role of nursery areas in the life cycle of lobsters (Presented: 2012)

Reef Restoration


Coral Reef Restoration. Author: Lily Clark, Gillings School of Global Public Health, Dept of Environmental Sciences and Engineering. (Posted: May 2009)

Reef Conservation


Balmford, Andrew, Gravestock, Pippa, Hockley, Neal, McClean, Colin J., and Roberts, Callum M. The worldwide costs of marine protected areas. PNAS 2004 101: 9694-9697.

Threats to Coral and Reefs



Danovara, Robert et al. 2008. Sunscreens Cause Coral Bleaching by Promoting Viral Infections. Environmental Health Perspectives 116: 441-447.

Shenkar, N., Fine, M., Kramarsky-Winter, E., Loya, Y. Population dynamics of zooxanthellae during a bacterial bleaching event. Coral Reefs, Volume 25, Issue 2, May 2006, Pages 223 – 227, DOI 10.1007/s00338-006-0090-0, URL

Barton, A. D., Case, K. S. Climatological context for large-scale coral bleaching. Coral Reefs, Volume 24, Issue 4, Dec 2005, Pages 536 – 554, DOI 10.1007/s00338-005-0017-1.

Ostrander, Gary K., Armstrong, Kelley Meyer, Knobbe, Edward T., Gerace, Donald, and Scully, Erik P. Rapid transition in the structure of a coral reef community: The effects of coral bleaching and physical disturbance. PNAS 97: 5297-5302.

Warne, Mark E., Fitt, William K. , and Schmidt, Gregory W. Damage to photosystem II in symbiotic dinoflagellates: A determinant of coral bleaching. PNAS 96: 8007-8012.

Brown, Barbara E. and John C. Ogden 1993. “Coral Bleaching.” Scientific American 268: 64-70.

Climate Change and other Disturbances


Kleypas, J.A., Feely, R.A., Fabry, V.J., Langdon, C., Sabine, C.L., and Robbins, L.L. Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Coral Reefs and Other Marine Calcifiers: A Guide for Future Research. Report of a Workshop Sponsored by NSF, NOAA, and USGS. June 2006.

Mumby, Peter J., Foster, Nicola L., Glynn Fahy, Elizabeth A. Patch dynamics of coral reef macroalgae under chronic and acute disturbance.Coral Reefs, Volume 24, Issue 4, Dec 2005, Pages 681 – 692, DOI 10.1007/s00338-005-0058-5.

Buddemeier, Robert W., Kleypas, Joan A., and Aronson, Richard B. Coral reefs: Potential Contributions of Climate Change to Stresses on Coral Reef Ecosystems & Global climate change. Pew Center on Global Climate Change. February, 2004.

Gattuso, Jean-Pierre, Frankignoulle, Michel, and Smith, Stephen V. Measurement of community metabolism and significance in the coral reef CO2 source-sink debate. PNAS 96: 13017-13022.

Richmond, R. H. 1993. “Coral Reefs: Present Problems and Future Concerns Resulting from Anthropogenic Disturbance.” American Zoologist, 33:524-536.

Disease, Invasive Species, and Population Dynamics


Mayor, Philippe A., Rogers, Caroline S., Hillis-Starr, Zandy M. Distribution and abundance of elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata, and prevalence of white-band disease at Buck Island Reef National Monument, St. Croix, US Virgin Islands. Coral Reefs, Volume 25, Issue 2, May 2006, Pages 239 – 242, DOI 10.1007/s00338-006-0093-x.

Donovan, Stephen K. The fossil record of Diadema in the Caribbean. Coral Reefs, Volume 24, Issue 4, Dec 2005, Pages 603 – 605, DOI 10.1007/s00338-005-0032-2.

Patterson, Kathryn L., Porter, James W., Ritchie, Kim B., Polson, Shawn W., Mueller, Erich, Peters, Esther C., Santavy, Deborah L., and Smith, Garriet W. From the Cover: The etiology of white pox, a lethal disease of the Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata. PNAS 99: 8725-8730.

Carr, Mark H., Anderson, Todd W., and Hixon, Mark A. Biodiversity, population regulation, and the stability of coral-reef fish communities.PNAS 99: 11241-11245.

Littler, M.M., D.S. Littler. 1995. “Impact of CLOD Pathogen on Pacific Coral Reefs.” Science, 267:1356-1359.

Edmunds, P.J. 1991. “Extent and Effect of Black Band Disease on a Caribbean Reef.” Coral Reefs, 10:161-165.

Birkeland, C. 1989. The Faustian traits of the Crown-of-Thorns Starfish. American Scientist, 77:154-163.

Lessions, H.A. 1988. Mass Mortality of Diodema antillarum in the Caribbean: What Have We learned?. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 19:371-393.

Gladfelter, W.B. 1982. “White Band Disease in Acropora palmata: Implications for the Structure and Growth of Shallow Reefs.” Bulletin of Marine Science, 32(2):639- 643.