More than 2.3 million people in North Carolina rely on groundwater from private wells as their primary source of drinking water.

In partnership with the NC Department of Health and Human Services and other state agencies, ERP staff and the UNC Superfund Research Program Research Translation Core mapped the distribution of contaminants found in NC private drinking water wells and developed an online resource for North Carolina well owners.


Private Drinking Water Wells

ERP_hydrantMost private well water comes from underground water supplies, called groundwater.  All water, even water from deep underground, can contain some impurities. Contaminants can enter groundwater through the erosion of natural mineral deposits, precipitation (rainfall or snowfall), and run-off, as well as some agricultural and industrial activities.

Since 2008 all newly constructed drinking water wells in North Carolina must be tested for bacterial and chemical contaminants within 30 days of the well construction being completed.  However, there are no other required tests for private wells in North Carolina. As a result, it is important for private well owners to perform regular well-testing and maintenance to identify contamination problems early.

Learn more about private well water in North Carolina.


Mapping Well Water Contaminants

ERP_NC-well-water-map
Click on the map to view county-level maps of well water contaminants in NC.

Beginning in 2009, the UNC SRP Research Translation Core, led by staff of ERP, partnered with the NC Division of Public Health (NC DPH) to identify North Carolina populations at greatest potential risk from well water contamination.

Using private well test results received by the NC State Laboratory of Public Health from 1998-2010, researchers mapped the concentration of 31 contaminants detected in NC well water, many of which are also Superfund priority chemicals. The partnership also led to the development of an online resource for well owners interested in more information about understanding well-testing results, the distribution of groundwater contaminants, and the impact of groundwater on human health.


This project was supported by an ARRA supplement from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (#P42ES005948) 2009-2011.